Moon Water Is Young

first_imgThe water detected on the moon by orbiters can only last thousands of years, not billions.A NASA press release says, “Inside Dark, Polar Moon Craters, Water Not as Invincible as Expected, Scientists Argue.” An animation at the top shows why: meteoroids and the solar wind destroy it.Unlike Earth, with its plush atmosphere, the Moon has no atmosphere to protect its surface. So when the Sun sprays charged particles known as the solar wind into the solar system, some of them bombard the Moon’s surface and kick up water molecules that bounce around to new locations.Likewise, wayward meteoroids constantly smash into the surface and uproot soil mingled with frozen bits of water. Meteoroids can hurtle these soil particles — which are many times smaller than the width of a human hair — as far as 19 miles (30 kilometers) away from the impact site, depending on the size of the meteoroid. The particles can travel so far because the Moon has low gravity and no air to slow things down: “So every time you have one of these impacts, a very thin layer of ice grains is spread across the surface, exposed to the heat of the Sun and to the space environment, and eventually sublimated or lost to other environmental processes,” said Dana Hurley, a planetary scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.Planetary scientists had thought the moon’s water was “invincible” because it appeared to be locked up in polar craters that are in constant shadow. At those locations, the temperature can be -388° F – the coldest temperatures known in the solar system! The water seemed safe there. A new paper in Geophysical Research Letters challenges that assumption, arguing that constant bombardment moves the water around the moon where it becomes exposed to destructive processes.Earth’s moon from Cassini, 1999 (NASA). Some crater floors at the poles never receive sunlight, so water ice can exist there.Icy H2OLunar water does not exist in pools, obviously. Remote sensing from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other spacecraft implied that icy water molecules in the cold traps are mixed in with lunar soil as “frost” or combined with minerals. Scientists are unsure how deep the icy deposits go in the craters.Future manned missions to the moon may depend on the availability of water. Since it would be very difficult to retrieve it from the shadowed craters at the poles, the scientists were glad to find that impacts might be scattering the molecules around the moon where they could be retrieved more easily. Exposed to sunlight, though, they could not last long. How old is the water that satellites detected?While it’s important to consider that even in the shadowed craters water is slowly seeping out, it’s possible that water is being added, too, the paper authors note. Icy comets that crash into the Moon, plus the solar wind, could be replenishing it as part of a global water cycle; that’s something scientists are trying to figure out. Additionally, it’s not clear how much water there is. Is it sitting only in the top layer of the Moon’s surface or does it extend deep into the Moon’s crust, scientists wonder?Either way, the topmost layer of polar crater floors is getting reworked over thousands of years, according to calculations by Farrell, Hurley, and their team. Therefore, the faint patches of frost that scientists have detected at the poles using instruments such as LRO’s Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument could be just 2,000 years old, instead of millions or billions of years old as some might expect, Farrell’s team estimated. “We can’t think of these craters as icy dead spots,” he noted.Theory RescueThe article mentions replenishment of the water as a “possible” phenomenon, but admits that nobody knows. Imagining a “global water cycle” on the moon seems like special pleading to keep the moon billions of years old. How often do icy comets come in? Only comets whose icy water molecules reach the cold traps could replenish them. How many billions of lucky comets would be required to keep as much water there as is observed today?The solar wind is more predictable, but once again, any water generated by the process has to reach the cold traps, too – and those cold traps are not “icy dead spots” as previously thought. The shadowed craters are losing their water. Day and night, constantly, meteoroids from tiny to mighty blast the water molecules up and away into sublimation Hades.The Reasonable InferenceIn short, loss processes are confirmed by observation, but additive processes are only speculative. More measurements will be required to determine which processes predominate. Till then, science should go with observation. Scientists can no longer assume that the water is safe from destruction in the shadowed craters. The reasonably-known destruction rates support a young moon.Did you notice how the press release tiptoed around the evidence for youth? Any evidence causing problems for billions of years cannot possibly be entertained by secular materialist moyboys, but they have to respect measurable facts. Read the quotes above again, and feel the tension in their predicament.(Visited 430 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

SA set for young ‘Pimps’

first_img17 August 2007In an effort to boost self-employment in the country, the Usobomvu Youth Fund (UYF) is assisting 250 youngsters with start-up capital to sell prepaid airtime vouchers and energy drinks, as well as to become “Pimps” – positively intelligently motivated persons.The 250 were chosen from various UYF databases.The government-endorsed youth organisation has entered into a partnership with local company Mojalife that will see Pimps around South Africa distributing prepaid airtime and PimpJuice, a non-carbonated energy drink created by US rapper Nelly.The St Louis-based musician, whose real name is Cornell Haynes junior, has also released a song named after the drink, which sells over 2-million cans a month in the US.“We have a very big year planned for Derrty ENT (Nelly’s record label), Apple Bottoms, and Pimp Juice,” Nelly explained on the official PimpJuice website earlier this year.“I am very excited about the new pimp juice flavour coming out this summer. I am continuously amazed by PimpJuice and hip hop’s success overseas, and am very excited about visiting South Africa for personal and promotional reasons,” Nelly said.PimpJuice will be distributed and licensed under Mojalife, a company headed by local businessman Matthews Phosa. It will be produced and manufactured in South Africa, with plans to supply Australia, New Zealand, Asia, and Israel.“The person that sells the most PimpJuice at the end of 24 months will receive a BMW 116i vehicle and will have their entire loan paid back to UYF by Mojalife,” Phosa said in a statement earlier this month.“The person who comes second will receive a holiday valued at R25 000, while number three will receive an X-Box and games valued at R5 000.”There is also a retail distribution opportunity for youth-owned companies who want to start or expand their businesses. Distributors will also be given rights per area to supply retail chain stores, pubs, restaurant other prospective buyers.The partnership between the two organisations will provide youngsters with a unique opportunity of being part of an international brand and will help them establish business with large companies and other world brands.Pimp My RideThe relationship will also see Mojalife, using the branding of PimpJuice, venturing into television. The partners recently signed a deal with UK-based Screen Ventures and MTV Networks to shoot 52 episodes of the international television series “Pimp My Ride” in South Africa.The popular show sees young people writing in to have their old, damaged and sometimes written-off cars given a new lease on life by being re-vamped, customised and made better than new by a team of motor mechanics and customisers.“Pimp My Ride” is currently screened in the original US version and as “Pimp My Ride UK” and “Pimp My Ride International”, which focuses on Europe. Also mooted for local television audiences is a hip-hop reality show based on the “Idols” format.The winner could possibly receive a two-year recording contract with Nelly’s Derrty ENT record company.Source: BuaNewslast_img read more

Video: Thank You World!

first_img“You arrived with open minds. And embraced the spirit of Africa …” South Africa thanks all the teams and fans who visited the country “for helping make the 2010 Fifa World Cup one the world will never forget”.Click arrow to play video.last_img

Marketing on what is known

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Jon Scheve, Superior Feed Ingredients, LLCPractically everyone in the grain trading world is saying “I didn’t see that coming” after a 70-cent corn price drop over the last 30 days and a $2 per bushel drop in soybeans. I know I’m not the only one disappointed that prices are back to levels last seen in January. At least the market has come off of its lows and is only down 50 cents in corn and $1.50 for beans.While I wish I would have sold more futures during this last rally, knowing what I know now, I’m glad I sold what I did above $4.25. At the time I sold those bushels I was worried $4.50 to $5 may be possible and that those sales would turn out to be a mistake.It’s easy when negative and unpredictable things happen to fall into the “if only” trap, but there’s too much uncertainty to spend significant time dwelling on what should have been done. No one knows what’s going to happen, and certainly no one can predict the weather, the biggest driver of prices. We only know current conditions and 30 days ago we knew….Corn was planted one to two weeks later than usualNormal yields with average rainfall would likely mean that for the 2018/19 marketing year there would be: a decreased world stock level by 20%; the lowest corn carryout in the U.S. in 5 years; and the tightest “Stock To Use Ratio” in 40 years.Weather forecasts indicated: increased dryness throughout the southern plains; Memorial Day Weekend would be hot, 100 degrees throughout the Corn Belt; June would likely continue to be hot; and there were global dryness concerns outside the U.S.There were potential trade concerns, but the market had responded well after a couple days with each announcement up to that point.Trendline yields around 174 bushels per acre would have likely meant $4 Dec corn by Thanksgiving. What do we know today?Crop conditions are off to a great start, maybe the best ever, with widespread timely rains and warm weather. Even with the delayed planting, the intense heat has help speed up the growth of the corn and pollination will likely happen during the normal time period. It is unlikely that there will be many prevent plant acres and that corn could actually see an increase in planted acres. If fantastic weather continues, the national yield averages could hit 180 or 182, which would mean carryout exceeding 2 billion up from 1.6 billion only 2 months ago. This could set up the market for a situation similar to last year.Each bushel per acre increase over the 174 national yield average would likely mean 10 cents off a $4 Dec corn price. So, an average 180-bushel national yield would mean Dec corn probably trading $3.40. What don’t we know today?Will Good weather continue through pollination and grain fill?Will the last half of July and August be hot, or will there be cool nights?Will too much rain be a factor? That has only happened once in the last 30 years, so it’s probably a long shot.Trade/tariff issues have received a lot of press recently, but they too are impossible to predict. The U.S. produces 30% of the world’s grain, so there isn’t enough global supply to support the world’s needs without the U.S. supply. In the short term, headlines can make some market shifts, but like weather, no one knows what will happen. Market Action — July options expired — CornTrade 1 — Sold callWhen the market was moving toward its low for the year last season on 8/31/17, I sold a $4 July call for 19 cents (5% ’17 production)What does this mean?If July corn is above $4 on 6/22 I have to sell corn for $4 and keep 19 cents ($4.19 total).If July corn is below $4 on 6/22 I keep the 19 cents to use on another trade in the future.I hope corn rallies above $4 before July, but it’s unlikely knowing what I know today. Therefore, getting an additional 19 cent premium to add to a later trade will be helpful in maintaining profitability if prices don’t increase.What happened?Corn closed below $4 and I just collected the 19 cents. Trade 2 — StraddleOn 2/26/18 when July corn was $3.82:Sold a $3.90 straddle (where I sell both the put and call for the same strike price)Bought a $3.60 put to minimize downside risk in this tradeCollected a total of 28 cents premium for the trade.What does this mean?If corn is below $3.62 on 6/22/18, I don’t get to sell any corn and I could lose up to 2 cents max.If corn is above $4.18 on 6/22/18, I have to sell 10% of my 2017 production for $3.90 plus the 28 cents from the sale of the options, so I would get $4.18 total.If corn is between $3.62 and $4.18, I will make some premium on this trade but no sale has to be made. The closer July corn is to $3.90, the more of the 28 cents premium I get to keep.Worst case scenario — prices fall below $3.62 and I lose 2 cents. I think this is unlikely, but I’m prepared if it happens. Any price above $3.62 and I’ll be pleased the results.What happened? Corn closed at $3.57. I lost 2 cents and didn’t sell any grain. Trade 3 — StraddleOn 4/17/18 when July corn was around $3.88, I sold a July $4.10 straddle (sold both the put and the call) and collected 34 cents total on 10% of my production.What does this mean?If July corn is $4.10 on 6/22/18 I keep all of the 34 cents.Every penny corn is below $4.10 I get less premium until $3.76.If corn is $3.76 or lower I will have to remove a sale by buying back futures.For every penny higher than $4.10 I get less premium until $4.44.At $4.44 or higher I have to make a corn sale at $4.10 against July futures, but I still get to keep the 34 cents so it’s like selling $4.44As with all straddles, this trade is most profitable if corn stays sideways. And while I think corn has upside potential, I don’t think it’s likely to rally higher than the top of this straddle’s range (but I’ll obviously be happy if it does). The biggest concern of this trade is the downside. Corn demand will have to stay strong and a weather scare would help.I think there is a good chance corn will be between $3.76 to $4.44 at the end of June, with what I know today. Even last week May corn didn’t drop below the lower limits of this trade. And since I sold 20% of my corn the previous week, buying back some of this sale (worst case scenario) is acceptable risk, given the potential reward of the trade.What happened? Unfortunately, the market collapsed the last 4 weeks and we finished below $3.76. Perfect rains and tariff issues were too much for the market to bear. It turns out I was too aggressive with my plan for higher prices.I didn’t want to buy any of my previous sales back as I stated in my original plan back in April when I placed the trade. Instead I bought back the put portion of this trade for 55 cents before it expired. If I had left the put I originally had sold in place it would have caused me to buy corn back at $4.10 July futures. I’m very uncertain of where the market will go next so I choose to take my loss and look for other opportunities down the road.I let the $4.10 call portion of the straddle I sold for a premium expire worthless because the market was below that strike price.After the 34 cents I collected from selling the straddle originally, I have a 21-cent net loss (34 – 55 = -21) on 10% of my ’17 production that will be subtracted from my pot of premium I’ve been collecting all year long. The results of using straddles this past yearIn the last year I’ve had a lot of success using straddles to collect extra premium during a long-term unprofitable sideways market. Along the way I have shared the results of those trades in these newsletters, both the winners and the losers. Here is a quick recap of the results:Since 6/20/17 I’ve placed 14 different straddle trades, with 11 of the 14 being profitable.11 Trades each on just 10% of my ’17 production added to my pot of premium +1.89 cents total (+18, +8, +12, +37, +7, +14, +5, +38 +18, +7, & +25)3 Trades each on just 10% of my ’17 production removed from my pot of premium – 37 cents total (-14, -2 & -21)My net premium from trading straddles is +1.52/bu on 10% of production or 15.2 cents on every bushel I raised this past year.While overall the last year, I’ve had many successes, I’m disappointed the two straddles above were losses (specifically trade #3). In hindsight I had too much faith the market would remain strong through July 4 and should have bought a put for downside protection, which would have limited my loss to 5 cents only. But with delayed plantings in April, and a potential big drop in carryout next year it seemed unlikely there would be perfect crop conditions in June. Back then I feared the market was going to go way up and selling too low, then I was with the market going down.With an 80% success rate selling straddles on the ’17 crop and overall profit, I’m probably not going to stop using them. But the straddle trades that just expired are an important reminder that the market is unpredictable and even when it seems impossible that the market could go down, it still can. So, it’s important to always understand all possible outcomes for each trade and be willing to accept them all. Jon grew up raising corn and soybeans on a farm near Beatrice, NE. Upon graduation from The University of Nebraska in Lincoln, he became a grain merchandiser and has been trading corn, soybeans and other grains for the last 18 years, building relationships with end-users in the process. After successfully marketing his father’s grain and getting his MBA, 10 years ago he started helping farmer clients market their grain based upon his principals of farmer education, reducing risk, understanding storage potential and using basis strategy to maximize individual farm operation profits. A big believer in farmer education of futures trading, Jon writes a weekly commentary to farmers interested in learning more and growing their farm operations.Trading of futures, options, swaps and other derivatives is risky and is not suitable for all persons. All of these investment products are leveraged, and you can lose more than your initial deposit. Each investment product is offered only to and from jurisdictions where solicitation and sale are lawful, and in accordance with applicable laws and regulations in such jurisdiction. The information provided here should not be relied upon as a substitute for independent research before making your investment decisions. Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC is merely providing this information for your general information and the information does not take into account any particular individual’s investment objectives, financial situation, or needs. All investors should obtain advice based on their unique situation before making any investment decision. The contents of this communication and any attachments are for informational purposes only and under no circumstances should they be construed as an offer to buy or sell, or a solicitation to buy or sell any future, option, swap or other derivative. The sources for the information and any opinions in this communication are believed to be reliable, but Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy of such information or opinions. Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC and its principals and employees may take positions different from any positions described in this communication. Past results are not necessarily indicative of future results. He can be contacted at jon@superiorfeed.com.last_img read more

PHOTOS: USF Church Service

first_imgMinister of Science, Energy and Technology, Hon. Fayval Williams (left), greets Pastor of Fellowship Tabernacle, Rev. Al Miller (right), at the Universal Service Fund’s 14th anniversary church service, held at Fellowship Tabernacle, 2 Fairfield Avenue, Kingston, on May 19. Looking on is USF Chief Executive Officer, Daniel Dawes.last_img

82 women walk red carpet in Cannes film festival protest

first_img Twitter LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment Eighty-two women climbed the steps of the Palais des Festivals at the Cannes Film Festival in an unprecedented red carpet protest to press for improved gender equality in the film industry.The number of stars, filmmakers and film industry professionals ascending the steps represented the number of female filmmakers who have been selected to compete at Cannes during the festival’s seven-decade history.In contrast to their 82, 1,866 films directed by men have been picked for the prestigious festival lineup. From left: Jury members Kristen Stewart, Lea Seydoux, Khadja Nin, Ava Duvernay, Cate Blanchett and director Agnes Varda walk the red carpet. (Joel C Ryan/Invision/AP)The other two — Nadine Labaki’s Capernaum, and Alice Rohrwacher’s Happy as Lazzaro — are to premiere next week.Cannes has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years over the number of female directors selected into its main slate, considered one of the most esteemed achievements in cinema. Jane Campion is the only female filmmaker to ever win the Palme.The festival supported Saturday’s protest. Festival director Thierry Fremaux earlier this week hailed Saturday’s event as a way for women “to affirm their presence.”Fremaux has repeatedly insisted that the festival chooses its films purely based on quality. But he’s also signaled that the festival is reanalyzing its procedures and making its selection committees gender-balanced From centre left: Sofia Boutella, Salma Hayek and Patty Jenkins stand as part of 82 film industry professionals on the steps of the Palais des Festivals to protest pervasive gender inequality in the film industry at the 71st Cannes film festival on Saturday. (Vianney Le Caer/Invision/AP) Advertisement Facebook Advertisement Login/Register With: Advertisement Organizers said the event was orchestrated by the Time’s Up movement and the French movement known as 5020×2020 to show “how hard it is still to climb the social and professional ladder” for women.It brought an array of film industry professionals to the Cannes red carpet, including actresses Salma Hayek and Jane Fonda, Wonder Woman filmmaker Patty Jenkins and French director Agnes Varda, a recipient of an honorary Palme d’Or at Cannes.The number of stars, filmmakers and film industry professionals ascending the steps represented the number of female filmmakers who have been selected to compete at Cannes during the festival’s seven-decade history. (Joel C Ryan/Invision/AP)Also joining were the five female members of this year’s Cannes jury: Cate Blanchett, Kristen Stewart, Ava DuVernay, Lea Seydoux and Burundian singer Khadja Nin. Blanchett read a statement atop the Palais steps in English; Varda read it in French.“Women are not a minority in the world, yet the current state of the industry says otherwise,” Blanchett said. “We stand together on these steps today as a symbol of our determination to change and progress.”“The stairs of our industry must be accessible to all,” she concluded. “Let’s climb.”The protest was held ahead of the premiere of French filmmaker Eva Husson’s Girls of the Sun, which is about a Kurdish battalion of women soldiers. Husson is one of three female filmmakers out of the 21 movies in competition for the Palme d’Or this year.last_img read more